- a minimum blood level of 30 ng/mL is recommended and to guarantee sufficiency between 40 and 60 ng/mL for both children and adults
- high risk groups should be screened for deficiency including; obese individuals, black people, pregnant and lactating women, and patients with malabsorption syndromes
- Screening should be performed using a reliable assay for 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D), not 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25[OH]2D), “which tells you nothing about vitamin D status”
- Vitamin D deficiency is defined as 25[OH]D levels below 20 ng/mL
- Supplementation at the suggested daily intake and upper tolerable level is recommended, considering that vitamin D deficiency is very common in all age groups and that few foods contain vitamin D
- For bone health, infants and children up to 1 year of age require at least 400 IU/day vitamin D, and children 1 year and older need at least 600 IU/day, the guideline states. However, at least 1000 IU/day of vitamin D may be needed to raise the blood level of 25(OH)D consistently above 30 ng/mL
- Adults aged 19 to 70 years require at least 600 IU/day of vitamin D to maximize bone health and muscle function. However, getting 25(OH)D levels consistently above 30 ng/mL may require at least 1500 to 2000 IU/day of vitamin D
- Adults 70 years and older require at least 800 IU/day of vitamin D for bone health and fall prevention; at least 1500 to 2000 IU/day of supplemental vitamin D may be needed to keep 25(OH)D levels above 30 ng/mL
- Pregnant and lactating women need a minimum of 600 IU/day of vitamin D; 1500 IU/day may be needed to maintain blood levels of 25(OH)D higher than 30 ng/mL.
- Obese children and adults and children and adults on anticonvulsant medications, glucocorticoids, antifungals such as ketoconazole, and medications for AIDS need at least 2 to 3 times more vitamin D for their age group to satisfy their body’s vitamin D requirement
- Tolerable upper limits of vitamin D, which “should not be exceeded without medical supervision,” include the following:
o 1000 IU/day for infants aged up to 6 months,
o 1500 IU/day for infants aged 6 months to 1 year old,
o 2500 IU/day for children aged 1 to 3 years,
o 3000 IU/day for children aged 4 to 8 years, and
o 4000 IU/day for everyone older than 8 years.
- individuals who are vitamin D deficient, higher levels of vitamin D (2000 IU/day for children up to age 1 year; 4000 IU/day for children aged 1 – 18 years, and up to 10,000 IU/day for adults aged 19 years and older) may be necessary to correct, treat, and prevent vitamin D deficiency
Wheat*, Spelt*, Kamut*, Triticale*(* are all forms of Wheat).
Rye, Barley, Oats ( contains gluten but no gliadin).
Gluten is a collective name to cover a number of proteins that occur in grains. Modern wheat, especially the wheat we consume in Ireland, is extremely high in gluten. Industrial bakers love this as gluten swells giving you a bigger loaf for less flour. Gluten also allows dough to stand up to industrial scale mixing and baking. Modern supermarket breads are full of gluten and chemicals and each slice of pan bread is roughly the equivalent of 5 teaspoons of sugar.
Even though Oats contain Gluten, they do not contain Gliadin which is the most irritant and allergenic part of gluten. Approx 80% of people with Coeliac disease can tolerate some Oats. All the other Gluten Grains contain Gluten and Gliadin. However Wheat has by far the highest content.
Buckwheat (no relation of wheat), Corn, Millet, Maize, Rice
Even though Corn is Gluten-Free it should be eaten only every third or fourth day. Most of it is genetically modified & it is 12th on the list of the top allergy causing foods. This is probably due to the fact that corn, corn oil and high fructose corn syrup are in a huge amount of the food currently eaten. Many animals are feed corn and this affects dairy, meat and eggs.
Quinoa and Amaranth are wonder grains but need to be cooked properly. Quinoa contains excellent protein which is wonderfully nutritious, especially for vegetarians. Amaranth contains more Calcium than milk.
Wash several times to remove bitterness. Add half a cup to a frying pan with a little olive/coconut oil or ghee. Turn over on the pan for 4-5 minutes. Transfer to a saucepan and add a cup of water(or vegetarian stock). Bring to the boil and then simmer slowly until all the water is absorbed and the quinoa is light & fluffy. Add Turmeric, Black Pepper, Tamari sauce, Parsley etc and serve like rice. Alternatively, make a large pot and keep in the fridge. Every day take out what you want and chop in whatever you like to make a lovely couscous – peas, beans, chickpeas, celery, carrot, parsley, olives, tamari sauce, chicken, turkey, mackerel, sardines and so on
Blood Pressure Treatment
Have your B.P. checked regularly.
If you smoke, STOP.
Reduce alcohol and Coffee.
Lose weight if you need to.
Have your Homocysteine levels checked.
With your doctor’s permission, follow a good exercise programme for a half hour, at least four times weekly. Work up to this gradually
Be sure to get sufficient sleep.
If you are a loud snorer or suffer from sleep Apnoea have it checked in a sleep laboratory
If you are a mouth breather practice breathing in & out only through your nose until you breathe this way all the time except during very vigorous exercise. Gradually learn to breathe with your abdomen (diaphragm) as opposed to your chest muscles.
Use a method of deep relaxation constantly – Abdominal Breathing, Yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong etc.
Follow the diet guidelines – Salt must be kept to a minimum. Beware of “hidden salt” in processed foods, biscuits and bread. “Solo” salt is safe to use in small quantities and may even bring down B.P. slightly as it is low in sodium but high in potassium & magnesium.
Blood Pressure Diet.
Follow a strict salt-free diet. Avoid processed meats, cheeses, processed soups, frozen/chilled meals, canned vegetables etc. 80% of your salt consumption is “hidden” in food. If you need to use salt for a while, then use “Solo Salt” which contains more Potassium than Sodium as well as lots of Magnesium. Eventually eliminate all salt from your diet. Read labels carefully and avoid products that have “salt”, “soda”, “sodium” or the symbol “Na” on the label. Be careful with bread/biscuits which can have very high salt levels.
Avoid MSG(monosodium glutamate) – used in many prepared meals and Chinese meals/takeaways. Avoid baking soda; commercially prepared foods; over the counter medicines that contain Ibuprofen(such as Nurofen and Advil); soft drinks; diet soft drinks; foods with preservatives or artificial sweeteners/sugar substitutes; meat tenderisers; softened water and soy sauce. In short “Eat Fresh Food Only” as much as possible..
Eat a high-fibre, unrefined diet especially wholegrains such as oats, brown rice, buckwheat, millet, spelt, amaranth and quinoa. Use wheat products sparingly. Try to have porridge every morning – extremely important.
B-Vitamins and Folic Acid are very important found in whole grains, beans and pulses, citrus fruit and dark green leafy vegetables.
Eat a max of 3 portions of fruit daily and loads of steamed vegetables such as asparagus, aubergines, beans, Beetroot (very important but not pickled), broccoli, cabbage, kale, celery(4 sticks daily), cantaloupe, garlic, green leafy vegetables, lentils, peas, squash, sweet potatoes and berries of all types. Eat nuts and seeds, especially pumpkin seeds.
Include fresh vegetable(not fruit) juices in your diet, especially: beet, carrot, celery, parsley and spinach. It is especially helpful to add Cayenne pepper to the vegetable juices – start with a pinch of mild cayenne as it takes a little getting used to.
Avoid fried foods. Steam, grill or stir-fry using only a little olive oil with some water. For cooking use only ordinary olive oil – extra virgin should never be heated and is better used cold over salads etc.
Drink 1- 1.5 litres of non-chlorinated water daily.
Especially avoid aged cheeses, anchovies, fava beans, pickled herring, sherry, sour cream.